Energy and Environment

Energy and Environment (8)

(Version française)

Over the past decade, the MENA region has experienced considerable economic and population growth, which is only expected to continue in the future. The demand for power in this diverse region (comprised of energy importers and exporters) is expanding between 3% and 8% annually. In fact, the demand for energy is rising so rapidly in the Arab world that even countries which have traditionally exported energy in the past are facing the prospect of becoming energy importers themselves. The following figure shows the increasing demand for electricity overtime in the Arab region, especially in the Gulf Cooperation Council.



In recent years, the demand for energy in the MENA has risen significantly due to the region’s rapid population growth, economic development and urbanization. The power demand in the MENA is expanding between 3% and 8% annually, which is above the global average. A reality that has spurred the formation of a vibrant market for energy solutions, which has the potential to drive economic diversification and create new jobs in the Arab world in the future.

However, many Arab countries still lack some of the basic elements needed to enable the development of new energy markets. In order to reap the full economic, social and environmental benefits of these budding markets, more Arab countries need to improve the legal frameworks regulating the “green economy,” ensure the availability of funding for “green enterprises” and develop individuals with the “green expertise” needed to create and implement such energy solutions.

Taka Solutions, a Dubai-based startup in the energy sector, is a prime example of a “green enterprise” that is trying to deploy innovative energy solutions that support the MENA’s economic development in a sustainable way. In the following interview, Charles Blaschke, Managing Director of Taka Solutions, shares how his startup is trying to promote energy efficiency in the region, while also educating their clients and the public about the importance of responsible consumption.

1. What is Taka Solutions?

Taka Solutions is a Dubai-based ESCO – Energy Services Company – that finances, develops and implements solutions aimed at enhancing customers’ energy efficiency and reducing energy-related expenditures providing both economic and environmental benefits.

We have delivered; audits to 350 buildings in the UAE, over 5 million sq.ft. worth of retrofits and an average of 29% energy savings. Taka Solutions is building a new energy future for the MENA and the world.


2. How is Taka Solutions trying to change the perception of energy consumption in the MENA region?

To achieve the region’s energy efficiency targets in the buildings sector, a global “race to the moon” approach is needed to launch deep building retrofits. The private sector’s effort towards energy efficiency in buildings is crucial to offset building energy demand growth while still providing comfort, improved quality of life and reduced energy/operational costs.

Greater effort to improve global understanding of energy efficiency services and energy performance contracting therefore seems be a priority. Taka Solutions, is trying to change the peoples’ perception by findings new and simpler ways to explain the benefits of energy efficiency.

Our business itself is built around an innovative paid-from-savings model, benefiting building owners, operators, end-users and finally the planet. Sharing is caring!

Making energy, efficiency and people buildings and homes easier to understand, and giving them the information in a clear and concise way will help them learn about their impact, consumption and how to reduce it. Buildings and homes represent 40% of the worlds carbon output, and they can easily save 50% using readily, easy, cheap technology. If everybody did this the world would meet the COP21 targets and more.


3. What are Taka Solutions’ objectives in the MENA region? How are you trying to position yourself in the region’s energy sector?

In a few bullet points, Taka Solutions objectives are:

  • To make of energy efficiency services a simple and seamless user experience.
  • To shift energy efficiency’s current reputation of “hidden fuel” to “first fuel”
  • To leverage technology, engineering and finance in an integrated solution addressing our customers’ energy needs efficiently.
  • To create value for society, business and people
  • To make the biggest impact by reaching more customers, and helping them save more, with deeper retrofits and technology, not just the cheap and easy stuff

We really want to refine and focus our energy to plan the launch into new markets to reach more people. We position ourselves as a global and trusted energy efficiency partner.


4. Are Taka Solutions’ internal objectives aligned with any national, regional or international energy frameworks? (For example, IRENA’s Pan-Arab Renewable Energy Strategy 2030 of the UN’s 2030 Agenda)

International organizations’ policies and objectives are part of Taka Solutions’ DNA. Not only are our objectives aligned, but we also share the same vision of a world where energy needs are met without negative impact.

As a company, we forged a global vision of the challenges to develop a diversified energy mix and manage resources, buildings as well as networks to achieve sustainable growth. In the United Arab Emirates, in Saudi Arabia, in Jordan and Kuwait, we have seen a rapid development of the urban environment as well as governments creating entities or investment funds pushing energy efficiency across buildings and new renewable energy infrastructure.

Over time and with tangible results being published, private customers are showing more and more interest in taking part in this clean energy transition. Taka Solutions is therefore at the forefront of this transition and making these international policies and frameworks a reality.

We are facing the world’s biggest challenges head on, with a solution that works. This is why most global and local governments around the world have policies and programs around sustainability, energy, and efficiency, of which we are not only aligned with, but solving without manipulation or intervention, using raw engineering and business.


5. As you mentioned in an article in Arabian Business, Taka Solutions focuses on promoting efficient energy use. With this in mind, do you believe that countries in the MENA region should investment more in energy efficiency or renewable energy production?

There are three levels in the electricity value chain, generation, distribution and consumption. For the MENA to remain a central player in the global energy industry we believe that the MENA countries should diversify their investment on each level, but will gain the most from efficiency.

This is because it is the easiest, cheapest and most scalable, because every single person can make an impact. If each of the 5,000,000 people in the UAE reduced their energy at home and work by 50% (which is very possible and even easy), then the countries energy consumption would reduce by 30%. That is a HUGE impact.

On the generation side, in rapidly developing cities, the need to satisfy growing electricity demand offers an opportunity to deploy energy efficiency services and renewables from the outset to ensure the development does not consume, or require large generation. This allows for renewables to be made to serve these.

On the distribution side, incorporating a higher share of renewables and supporting the electrification of end-use sectors will require a more flexible electricity system. Existing regulatory and market frameworks are currently supporting the system-wide flexibility benefits of certain technology options, such as smart metering and feed in tariffs.

On the demand side, increasing the efficient use of electricity can help reduce investments both in generation and at the system level investigating opportunities to avoid the unnecessary use of electricity and to improve the efficiency of remaining generation should be a first step in any effort to transition towards a sustainable energy system.

The cost of more efficient technologies on the end-use side are often more than made up by savings making the investment in energy efficiency more attractive than investments in generation. In the end, energy efficiency can free up the same amount of energy than new renewables only at a fraction of the cost.


6. With one of the youngest and fastest-growing populations in the world, the MENA region will inevitable need to generate more energy as its population grows. Keeping this in mind, how do you think government and renewable energy providers can ensure that they are efficiently using the energy they are producing?


1. First, reducing the existing consumption and demand using energy efficiency and performance standards.

2. Second, ensuring that all new development is efficient through good code, and strong enforcement.

3. Third, requiring all new generation to be clean and renewable – but without too much intervention and support, to ensure sustainable business that does not fail without subsidies.

Indeed, growing cities will have to match energy demand with supply and the way the infrastructure is designed, built, operated and maintained can yield different energy performance outcomes. Compact urban development, energy-efficient buildings, public transport, low-carbon end-use fuels, distributed renewable resources generation and smart energy networks all offer a vast and largely untapped potential to effectively achieve the MENA countries’ energy related targets.

For the past 3 years, governmental entities led the way on the critical tasks of adopting, monitoring and enforcing building energy codes for new power plants or buildings construction and a global uptake of retrofits in existing power generation assets. These efforts have included the development of local energy and awareness programs supporting the private sector, as well as end-users’ involvement, which is a great step in ensuring the efficiency of the energy system.

The results of the region’s first renewable energy production assets and energy performance contracts are a huge step in developing the understanding and confidence in these innovative business models.


7. What criteria were used to judge the participants of the GCC edition of The Venture competition and what aspects of the Taka Solutions business model led you to win the GCC final?

The five criteria that were used to evaluate the participants of The Venture were:

  • Market opportunity and size
  • Business Model & organizational strategy
  • Skills, Experience and commitment of the Team
  • Social impact
  • Scalability

The two main drivers that led to the Taka win were;

1. Paid from savings model that could have a big impact in solving the world’s biggest challenge, with aligned interest between Taka, the customer and the environment, where Taka bares all risk and is only paid once we save

2. The B2C mobile app and business model that would help to reach down to the individual level, and help people save, the ones who can and want to save, and need to save.

Cities are at the heart of the decarbonization and energy efficiency quest. With more than half of global population and about 80% of the world’s GDP in 2016, cities account for about two-thirds of primary energy demand and 70% of total energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

Continuing on the current trends, carbon emissions from energy use in cities, including indirect emissions from power and cooling/heating production would increase by 50%. Hence the market opportunity, size, business model, social impact and scalability of Taka Solutions’ business model.

Finally, and most importantly, the team was recognized for its expertise and commitment towards contributing to a world where energy needs are met without negative impact. A company is only as strong as the people behind it.


8. What gaps currently exist in the MENA’s energy efficiency and renewable energy sectors?

The biggest gaps are the understanding from customers about the potential or energy efficiency, and specifically the paid from savings model and their inability to make smart, informed decisions to saving and reducing their energy consumption, while getting new technology, engineering, finance and a better building that is better for their tenants.

If we look at renewable energy strictly as a means of large scale power generation and energy efficiency as small-medium scale services then the gaps are huge. Renewables being a tangible product, they benefitted from a seamless deployment and gained popularity. On the contrary, energy efficiency is a service aimed at uncovering a hidden potential which is more complex to show.

Despite this apparent gap, we also see growing synergies between energy efficiency and renewable energy especially in the building, transport and district energy systems sectors.

Net zero-energy building (NZEB) projects are getting more and more consensus and we have recently offered consultancy services for a few of these in the UAE. The energy efficiency of the building is ensured from the design stage and the remaining needs for energy are satisfied with renewables.


9. What challenges do you face as startup in the energy sector in the MENA region? What can be done to eliminate these challenges?

Our biggest challenge is educating people about their impact on the environment by not using energy efficiently and the magnitude of savings and positive impact they can have by saving energy. Another challenge we face is how we manage our resources to achieve a global impact and create the greatest capacity to reach people effectively to help them save more.

Finding qualified and experienced employees, partners, contractors and vendors is a huge challenge now, and will get bigger over time.

We are looking to spread the word around different educational institutions. By taking part through global conversations and through combined teamwork, and experts in a wide variety of areas, we can team up by cutting and making our presence be known globally through platforms such as the Venture.


10. What role do you think that startups should play in the energy efficiency and renewable energy sectors in the MENA region?

We might say that the recipe to Taka Solutions’ success includes adaptability, research, ingenuity, and the fearlessness to go against the pack to find new and better ways to navigate the industry. Startups are generally highly adaptable and every idea is valued and considered, making of them very agile, quick and customer centric entities.

Startups can therefore adapt their offers much more easily than big corporations which have defined range of offers and capabilities. Providing innovative, out of the box solutions is where startups can challenge the status-quo.


11. What should the key stakeholders in the MENA’s startup ecosystem do to promote energy-focused entrepreneurship in the region?

The energy industry, and especially the energy efficiency sector, is still in a growth phase, creating or reinforcing existing associations gathering the different players in the market would help shape best practices and promote energy-focused entrepreneurship in the region.

Creating an infrastructure that would help small companies support larger companies with their services, and get contracts, along with secured payments would make a very large positive impact.


12. What trends do you see emerging in the energy efficiency and renewable energy sectors and where would you advise foreign venture capitalists and angel investors to invest?

Foreign venture capitalists have already understood the attractivity of the energy efficiency and renewable energy businesses. We already see large Groups entering the MENA looking for partners already having an experience in the region, enabling them to take part without having to start from scratch.

For a riskier, but very lucrative investment would be in technology deployment and R&D in existing energy efficiency firms of the region. There are many hardware, software, equipment, technology and processes that can be used in projects in the region that are not available.

To have the venture funding to create and deploy these (through existing contracts like we have) would make a low-risk investment with a huge potential return. A secure investment would be the newly formed green funds financing renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

Middle East Business

Renewable Energy Employs 9.8 million People Worldwide, New IRENA Report Finds.

Global energy system creating more jobs in renewables than in fossil-fuel technologies
More than 9.8 million people were employed in the renewable energy sector in 2016, according to a new report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Renewable Energy and Jobs – Annual Review 2017, released at IRENA’s 13th Council meeting, provides the latest employment figures of the renewable energy sector and insight into the factors affecting the renewable labour market.

“Falling costs and enabling policies have steadily driven up investment and employment in renewable energy worldwide since IRENA’s first annual assessment in 2012, when just over five million people were working in the sector,” said IRENA Director-General Adnan Z. Amin. “In the last four years, for instance, the number of jobs in the solar and wind sectors combined has more than doubled.
“Renewables are directly supporting broader socio-economic objectives, with employment creation increasingly recognised as a central component of the global energy transition. As the scales continue to tip in favour of renewables, we expect that the number of people working in the renewables sector could reach 24 million by 2030, more than offsetting fossil-fuel job losses and becoming a major economic driver around the world,” Mr. Amin added.

The Annual review shows that global renewable-energy employment, excluding large hydropower, reached 8.3 million in 2016. When accounting for direct employment in large hydropower, the total number of renewable-energy jobs globally climbs to 9.8 million. China, Brazil, the United States, India, Japan and Germany accounted for most of the renewable-energy jobs. In China for example, 3.64 million people worked in renewables in 2016, a rise of 3.4 per cent.

IRENA’s report shows that solar photovoltaic (PV) was the largest employer in 2016, with 3.1 million jobs — up 12 per cent from 2015 — mainly in China, the United States and India. In the United States, jobs in the solar industry increased 17 times faster than the overall economy, growing 24.5 per cent from the previous year to over 260,000. New wind installations contributed to a 7 per cent increase in global wind employment, raising it up to 1.2 million jobs. Brazil, China, the United States and India also proved to be key bioenergy job markets, with biofuels accounting for 1.7 million jobs, biomass 0.7 million, and biogas 0.3 million.

“IRENA has provided this year a more complete picture on the state of employment in the renewables sector, by including large hydropower data. It is important to recognise these additional 1.5 million working people, as they represent the largest renewable energy technology by installed capacity,” said Dr. Rabia Ferroukhi, Head of IRENA’s Policy Unit and Deputy Director of Knowledge, Policy and Finance.

The report finds that globally, 62 per cent of the jobs are located in Asia. Installation and manufacturing jobs continue to shift to the region, particularly Malaysia and Thailand, which has become global centre for solar PV fabrication.

In Africa, utility-scale renewable energy developments have made great strides, with South Africa and North Africa accounting for three-quarters of the continent’s 62,000 renewable jobs.
“In some African countries, with the right resources and infrastructure, we are seeing jobs emerge in manufacturing and installation for utility-scale projects. For much of the continent however, distributed renewables, like off-grid solar, are bringing energy access and economic development. These off-grid mini-grid solutions are giving communities the chance to leap-frog traditional electricity infrastructure development and create new jobs in the process,” Dr. Ferroukhi said.


Par: Sami Ben mansour


Le 23 mars 2016, le prix du baril de pétrole était côté à moins de 40$ à la bourse des matières premières de New York. En l'espace de 18 mois, le cours de l’or noir est passé de 106 à 37$. Un effondrement spectaculaire qui a entraîné très vite par chute dangereuse du marché.


Le reflux de l’économie mondiale dû au ralentissement de la croissance chinoise ne saurait expliquer à lui seul la baisse brutale du baril du pétrole. Derrière cette dégringolade des cours, il y a un enjeu geoploitique. L’Arabie Saoudite : un acteur majeur du marché étant le premier producteur mondial et le détenteur des deuxièmes plus grosses réserves planétaires de brut.


Une baisse provoquée


Le ralentissement de l’économie mondiale engendre déjà une demande moindre en énergie, le pétrole en premier. Pour redresser le cours de ce dernier, il est de coutume que les plus grands producteurs, l’Arabie Saoudite en tête, baissent leur production afin de rééquilibrer le marché. Mais cette fois l’Arabie saoudite maintient ses niveaux de production.


La baisse du prix de pétole a des effets négatifs directs sur l’Iran et la Russie, deux pays riches en pétrole, les alliés du régime d’Al Assad en Syrie. D’autre part, les Etats-Unis, profitant d’un pétrole cher, ont investi massivement dans l’exploitation du gaz de schiste, accroissant leur production et ainsi leur autonomie énergétique. Pour les punir de cette audace qui menace son leadership pétrolier et protéger ses parts de marché, l’Arabie Saoudite contrôle le marché à la baisse entraînant la faillite de beaucoup de producteurs américains de gaz de schiste.


Des conséquences économiques et sociales visibles

La baisse de prix de petrole a entrainé une baisse de production du gaz de schiste aux Etats-Unis, tandis que les alliés d’Al Assad souffrent économiquement. Mais les conséquences commencent sérieusement à se faire ressentir au niveau du royaume.


L’Arabie saoudite, dépendante à 90% des exportations de brut, n’est certes pas ruinée, forte de ses 667 milliards d’euros de réservers en devises accumulées durant les années des vaches grasses. Mais son train de vie va changer de manière drastique.

Conséquences immédiates : le prix du pétrole à la pompe a doublé dans le royaume entrainant un vent de panique parmi les saoudiens et des files d’attentes devant les stations d’essence. Du jamais vu dans le royaume. Mais le train de mesures spectaculaires ne s’arrête pas là car l’Etat ne prendra plus en charge comme à l’accoutumée le logement qui sera beaucoup moins subventionné qu’avant. Et l’eau et l’électricité augmenteront de 70%… Enfin, le saoudien découvre la TVA, notion totalement inexistante jusque-là dans le royaume.


Sur le plan macroéconomique, le déficit budgétaire saoudien s’est creusé de manière abyssale à plus de 89 milliards d’euros. Mais le danger guette, car le Fond monétaire international a averti le royaume qu’il risque d’épuiser ses réserves en devises en cinq ans s’il ne réduit pas ses dépenses et ne diversifie pas son économie.


Réformes budgétaires et diversification économique

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(1) McKinsey Global Institute, «Saudi Arabia beyond Oil : the Investment and productivity transformation», Décembre 2015.


Les opinions exprimées dans cet exposé sont celles de l'auteur et ne reflètent pas nécessairement celles de la direction de la plateforme


As the largest non-OPEC oil producer in Africa and second largest producer of natural gas, it is somewhat ironic that Egypt is one of the most energy insecure countries in the region. Still scrambling to recover from the devastating effects of political and social upheavals during the Arab Spring, the country’s ordeal of intermittent electrical blackouts and severe power shortages persists. As a result, the government has been forced to import crude oil and petroleum products from the GCC states, primarily Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, to meet rising domestic demand spurred by rapidly growing population. But this may be about to change. For all its political and economic misfortunes, Egypt is blessed with vast but largely untapped renewable energy resources – the country enjoys direct sun radiation of 2,800 kWh per square metre per year, topped by 3,015 full load hours of wind, the highest among Arab countries. These vast resources are offering unrivalled opportunities for foreign investors, with many quick to take advantage.

“Egypt is one of the largest economies in the region and the fact that they are successfully taking off with the renewable energy programme shows that there are very good things to come,” said Daniel Calderon, CEO of Alcazar Energy, a UAE-based independent developer, that has a $200mn investment in solar and wind plants in Egypt, and is planning to invest an extra $100mn over the long term.

“They have largely met the expectations of investors when they first announced the programme – that’s incredible. Even some of the most sophisticated economies in Europe and North America have struggled to keep the deadlines—this is a difficult thing when you are implementing a new energy framework that works in light of your local legal rules and regulations, so I’m excited because we have the unique opportunity to show our investors and our shareholders that the governments will be following the rules that they are laying out.”

Daniel refers to the recent passing of Egypt’s renewable energy law regarding new projects, the allocation of land for such projects, connecting them to the national grid and the sale of power they generate. The government is also currently working on more detailed regulations on wind and solar, devising a new market structure, while also revising the roles of its exiting electric utility entities. All of this, on the back of plans to have renewable energy account for 20% of total power generation by 2022, 12% of which will be produced by wind energy alone.

However, Daniel warns that to meet these ambitious targets, governments in the region need a significant amount of foreign investment that won’t come to the region unless the necessary contractual details are ironed out.

“Looking at the targets that governments in the Middle East, Turkey and Africa gave themselves, if you value them at the current and future cost of technology, so the amount of megawatts that they have permits to have times the cost per megawatt, you need a total investment of about $200bn by 2020. That’s an immense amount of money.

“But for that money to come to the region, you need loads of people who can invest it in a bankable way so these contracts need to give people 20-25 years’ line of sight on the cost of power.”

“They need to give bankable frameworks that you can give to national construction companies so that loans can come on a longer course basis. And that’s something that’s developing in a very steady way. So, when I say I’m excited it’s because this could be the beginning of a $200bn market – that’s a good thing for the region, in terms of jobs, in terms of lights at night, in terms of hospitals, these are good things from a social perspective,” he added.

Companies like Daniel’s are mushrooming in the Middle East as the investment landscape improves and more robust and reliable legal policies are being implemented across the region. “We want to be long-term investors in the Middle East, Turkey and Africa,” Daniel states with zero hesitation, his confidence in the market as high as it can be. Currently, Daniel’s company has shareholders from nearby countries like Jordan all the way over to Washington DC. But as its portfolio grows, it’s very likely that so will the number of investors, Daniel says.

When asked about the type of technology he expects to gain the most traction in the years to come, the answer was short and clear: “I can tell you right away, it’s wind and solar. Last year we saw $330bn being invested in renewable energy worldwide, $270bn of that was wind and solar. This is because to be able to obtain project finance, you need to use bankable technology and the technology in the solar and wind sector has a very low cost.”

Thanks to its successful bankable policies, Jordan, followed by Tunisia, is another high growth market for foreign investors, says Daniel. “As its renewable energy framework takes off, the macro economics are such that renewables makes a lot of sense [in those countries],” he concludes.

Propos recueillis par Ayman Abualkhair

Solstis, bureau d'étude, de réalisation et de commercialisation de l'énergie voltaïque, est l'une des entreprises les plus pointues en matière d'énergie solaire en Suisse. Elle a largement contribué au développement du marché dans le pays. Aujourd'hui, elle apporte son expertise et ses services aux marchés d'Afrique du Nord et du Moyen Orient. Rencontre avec Jacques Bonvin, co-fondateur.                                           

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by Jane Drake-Brockman and Max Thompson*

The threat of climate change has governments and citizens clamouring for an end to ‘business as usual’ and a shift towards an environmentally sustainable economy. Demographic trends create challenges.

Par: Amel Ben Zakour

La baisse récente du prix du pétrole, qui a reculé de plus de 55% depuis septembre 2014, pourrait constituer une aubaine temporaire pour les pays importateurs avec le risque de léser les pays exportateurs. Ces derniers, se situant dans les régions du Moyen-Orient, de l’Afrique du Nord, du Pakistan, de l’Afghanistan (MOANAP), du Caucase et de l’Asie Centrale (CAC) , doivent affronter de nouvelles réalités économiques. En effet, avec un prix d’équilibre du baril de pétrole brut qui se stabilisera entre 50 et 70 dollars en 2015[1], leurs recettes d’exportation de pétrole devraient diminuer considérablement. Selon une estimation du FMI, les recettes des pays du conseil de coopération du golf devraient baisser d’environ 300 milliards de dollars[2].

Source :

Ce qui tire les prix du pétrole vers le bas est la confrontation de l’offre et la demande. Le ralentissement considérable de certaines économies, comme l’économie chinoise, a affaiblit la demande. En chine, la croissance de l’industrie est inférieure à 7% par an[3] et plusieurs secteurs industriels stagnent ce qui entraine une diminution de la consommation de pétrole. En ce qui concerne l’offre, elle a été abondante et a dépassé la demande. Cet écart excédentaire est dû essentiellement à l’exploitation du gaz de schiste aux Etats Unis et au refus de l’OPEP de limiter sa production de l’or noir. Selon Patrick Artus, chef économiste et membre du comité exécutif de Natixis, l'écart entre capacité de production mondiale et demande mondiale de pétrole est considérable, il s’élève à 6 millions de barils par jour[4].

Par ailleurs, la politique monétaire actuelle de la FED impacte négativement le prix du baril via l’appréciation du dollar et le mouvement haussier des taux de d’intérêt réels.

Les pays exportateurs accuseront moins de recettes et leurs excédents budgétaires et soldes extérieurs risquent de diminuer. Selon un rapport de la Banque Mondiale, certains pays producteurs de pétrole sont plus vulnérables que d’autres tels que la Lybie et le Yémen. L’Iran et l’Irak enregistreraient une baisse de leur balance commerciale de plus de 10% du PIB en 2015[5].

Les pays exportateurs de pétrole disposant de larges réserves ont une situation économique moins critique, tels que les pays exportateurs faisant partie du Conseil de coopération du Golf. L’Arabie Saoudite est parmi les pays les plus à même à faire face à cette chute du prix des pétroles vu l’importance de ses réserves.

Le FMI recommande aux pays exportateurs « d’ajuster progressivement leurs dépenses, réformer leurs subventions énergétiques et diversifier leur économie en dehors du pétrole »[6].

Pour les pays exportateurs qui vont trouver des difficultés à faire face à leurs dépenses publiques, Lili Mottaghi, économiste de la Banque mondiale pour la région MENA, recommande « d’effectuer des ponctions sur leurs réserves, de contracter des dettes, et/ou de réduire les dépenses au titre des subventions aux carburants et des traitements dans le secteur public » [7].


[1] Source : IFP EN, Mars 2015 (

[2] FMI, Janvier 2015.

[3] Alternatives Economiques, Novembre 2014.

[4] Op.cit.

[5] Banque Mondiale, Janvier 2015.

[6] Bulletin du FMI, Janvier 2015.

[7] Banque Mondiale, Janvier 2015.



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