Education and training

Education and training (5)

 

Up until recently, our global economy was dominated by industrialized nations who relied heavily on the availability of expensive and complex infrastructure for mining and processing natural resources and manufacturing. However, various significant developments, including the economic crisis of 2008, the spread of the internet and social media and the decreasing costs of technology have led to the disruption of this monopoly. Thus, allowing the emergence of a more inclusive economic model that has gradually increased the participation of formerly marginalized economies in the global market. That being said, these aren’t the only phenomena that have played a pivotal role in changing the dynamics of our global economy.

 

The unprecedented fusion of our physical, digital and biological worlds, in what’s now being called the Fourth Industrial Revolution, has also transformed our global economies by creating new and innovative industries. In addition to empowering a new generation of entrepreneurs who are re-imagining the products and services available in the market place and disrupting the traditional workforce by moving towards a work model that focuses more on flexibility and project-based work. The UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has also influenced the trajectory of our global markets by emphasizing the need to encourage growth that promotes more responsible social, economic and environmental practices.

 

The rapid developments of the digital economy have raised many questions about the future of work. Especially in the MENA region where many countries’ workforces are still made up of a large proportion of unskilled and informal laborers. Therefore, leaving many people in the Arab world concerned about their job security. However, this fear can’t stop the key stakeholders in the region from asking the hard questions that need to be asked in order to develop the educational and employment opportunities that will be needed to secure the economic future of the Arab world.

 

The current state of Arab youth

At the moment, youth under the age of 25 constitute nearly half of the MENA region’s population and more than a quarter of these young people are unemployed. However, this lack of unemployment isn’t the result of a lack of education. According to The Future of Jobs and Skills in the Middle East and North Africa report published by the World Economic Forum in May 2017, “university graduates make up nearly 30% of the total pool of unemployed in the region, with two in five MENA graduates out of a job.” So, why are so many young people struggling to find employment opportunities?

 

The problem lies in the ever-growing gap between the skills and competencies that the MENA region’s educational institutions are providing youth and what employers are actually looking for in their prospective employees. However, Arab youth aren’t the only ones who are losing as a result of the skills mismatch in the region. According to the same report, “[n]early 40% of employers in the MENA region indicate that skills gaps are a major impediment to business growth.” Thus, highlighting the vicious cycle that continues to persist in the Arab world as a result of the lack of alignment between the region’s various stakeholders.

 

Having said that, one of the biggest challenges that the Arab world faces when it comes to unleashing the full potential of its economy comes from its inability to fully capitalize on the abundance of educated and talented young people in the region. Although the aforementioned skills deficit prevents many young Arabs from finding jobs, many qualified young people are also hesitant to join the workforce, because they’re unhappy with the compensation and working conditions in the MENA region’s private sector. Consequently, many young Arabs choose to immigrate to countries that offer more attractive salaries and non-monetary benefits (such as mentoring programs, tuition assistance and childcare) which ultimately reduces the level of human capital available in the region.

 

The aspirations of Arab youth

Bayt.com and YouGov’s Middle East Jobseeker Confidence Survey published in August 2017, highlighted how “jobseeker confidence is a measure of the economic wellbeing of a country.” In other words, if jobseekers are positive about their country’s economy and they have a satisfactory level of disposable income, they’re generally inclined to spend more on consumer goods. However, if job seekers are uncertain about the state of their country’s economy they tend limit their spending, which can create a spending recession that can lead to an economic downturn.

 

So, how does the Arab world’s young workforce feel about their future potential? According to the aforementioned survey, respondents in the Levant and North Africa were generally more pessimistic about the current state of their family’s finances, their country’s economy and their future job opportunities. On the other hand, respondents living in the GCC reported higher levels of optimism in almost every category. That being said, the young respondents from the Levant, North Africa and the GCC did share one thing in common: they don’t want to seek employment in a company.

 

In another survey published by Bayt.com and YouGov entitled Entrepreneurship in MENA published in November 2017, an overwhelming majority (between 55% and 76%) of respondents from across the Arab world expressed the desire to have their own business or be self-employed. Some of the reasons cited for this choice include the desire to seek a sense of personal fulfillment and the freedom to choose their own work-life balance.

 

The jobs of the future in the Arab world

Undoubtedly, while the Fourth Industrial Revolution has presented formidable challenges to the populations of the MENA region, it has also provided new opportunities to establish high value-adding formal sector jobs in numerous fields. However, in order to fulfill this demand, young Arab professionals will have to pursue interdisciplinary qualifications that will enable them to blend digital and STEM skills. Thus, providing the multi-skilled labor force needed to propel the digital economy forward in the Arab world. However, high-skilled jobs aren’t the only ones that have the potential to grow in the near future.

 

As the population of the MENA region continues to grow, there will be a need for more public infrastructure, including schools, roads, transportation systems, so on and so forth. Consequently, if the region’s stakeholders can strategically address these needs, they could generate a substantial number of medium and low-skilled jobs as a result. Also, by formalizing, professionalizing and upgrading various services in the care economy (such as cleaning, childcare and elderly care) countries in the MENA region could create even more employment and training opportunities for unskilled workers.

 

While the green economy is projected to generate millions of jobs and boost the GDP of numerous countries in the Arab world, there’s another work trend that stands to capitalize on the region’s underutilized talent pool: the freelance economy. In 2015, a Mckinsey Global Institute report entitled A Labor Market That Works stated that by 2025 it’s estimated that online talent platforms could generate as much as 945,000 additional full-time equivalent jobs and a US$21bn increase in GDP in Egypt and 276,000 jobs and US$32bn additional GDP in Saudi Arabia.

 

Cultures to support the development of Arab economies

Although countries in the MENA region have the potential to generate millions of jobs across various sectors and different skill levels in the future, their ability to do so will depend on whether they’re able to reskill and upskill their current workforce. Furthermore, it will also rely on their ability to equip the Arab youth of today with the skills of tomorrow. However, in order to be able to achieve these goals, the stakeholders in the region will have to embed 4 essential cultures in Arab communities.

 

Firstly, a culture of collaboration between the MENA region’s key stakeholders needs to be established to ensure that they can create curricula and learning experiences that will empower Arab youth to thrive in the future workforce. Secondly, a culture of mass digital literacy needs to be established to facilitate the transition of Arab economies to knowledge-based economies that export innovation. Thirdly, a culture of counseling needs to be integrated into the MENA region’s different educational institutions and work places, so young people can make more strategic decisions in their personal and professional lives. Last but not least, a culture of lifelong learning needs to be established, so that individuals and institutions in the MENA region can continue to stay relevant in this age of constant change.

 

Despite the development gap that currently separates the MENA region from its industrialized counterparts, the rise of the digital economy has created a unique opportunity for Arab countries to level the playing field and responsibly manage this “underdevelopment” by using the best practices that have emerged in the development arena over the past couple of years. Now, the question remains: can the region’s stakeholders effectively co-create and implement the policies needed to unlock the unlimited potential of the Arab world’s youth, talent and resources?

 

من المعروف أن اكثر المواقع الالكترونية تداولا بين الناس هي فيسبوك وتويتر وانستغرام وسنابشات...الخ من مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، لكن في الواقع، وبفضل تطور وسائل الاتصال وانتشار الشبكة العنكبوتية (الانترنت) وسهولة الوصول الى المعلومة، اصبحت الانترنت تشكل وسيلة هامة للتواصل والترفيه، الكثير من الناس يقضي اوقاتا امام شاشة الانترنت للتواصل مع الاقارب والاصدقاء أو للترفيه والاستمتاع بالمحتوى الذي يعرض من خلال الوسائط المتعددة، ولكن الانترنت توفر في الواقع امكانية الجمع بين الترفيه والتعلم، خاصة مع الانتشار الواسع للهواتف الذكية والامكانات الهائلة التي توفرها للاتصال عبر الانترنت والسرعات الفائقة التي تتمتع بها الانترنت في ايامنا هذه، حتى أن مؤسس شركة مايكروسوفت الشهير بيل غيتس افاد بأنه يستمتع بدروس الرياضيات التي تتوفر عبر الانترنت، هذا ناهيك عن تعلم العديد من المهارات من خلال الدروس المجانية التي تتوفر على اليوتوب والمواقع التعليمية الاخرى المتخصصة حسب المواضيع المختلفة.

هناك قاعدة تقول بأن المعرفة هي دالة تعتمد على الانتباه والوقت المكرس في التعلم اي (المعرفة = (الانتباه،الوقت)، (K)=f(A,t)). وهو ما يعني ان الوقت المتاح للترفيه يمكن ان يستغل للتعلم والمعرفة.

نورد فيما يلي خمسة مواقع عليك أن تدمن عليها أكثر من فيسبوك وتويتر، إذ بوسعك أن تجد فيها من الفائدة الشيء الكثير، ولكن قبل كل شيء لا بد من الاختيار الجيد للموضوعات التي تهمك والابتعاد عن ما هو جدلي، اذ لا تنسى أنها تعتبر منابر مفتوحة للجميع.

 

1- موقع تيد TED:

تيد عبارة عن مؤتمر او قاعة محاضرات يحاضر بها أناس مبدعون من كل دول العالم. الفكرة أن ted يمنحهم 18 دقيقة كحد أقصى لإلقاء أفضل محاضرة في حياتهم، وتكون فعلا رائعة، وهذا الرابط به كل محاضرات الموقع مترجمة للغة العربية  https://www.ted.com/talks?language=ar


2- موقع Udacity او coursera : هذا الموقع به محاضرات مجانية في كل المجالات وهي متوفرة باللغة الانجليزية، فهناك حاجة لاتقان اللغة الانجليزية لتتفاعل مع كل محتويات المحاضرة وحلقات النقاش، ولا تنسى أنه بامكانك تحسين لغتك من خلال استخدام الانترنت، فيما يلي الروابط الخاصة بهذا الموقع: https://www.udacity.com - https://www.coursera.org

 

3- موقع رواق:

رواق هي منصة تقدم محاضرات باللغة العربية في مختلف المجالات، كلها مجانية والتسجيل فيها سهل جدا  https://www.rwaq.org

 

4- موقع ويكي هاو:

هذا الموقع يعلمك أي شيء، الموقع موسوعة عن كيفية عمل أي شيء، ولذلك جميع مقالات ويكي هاو تبدأ بـ «كيف» أو «How to» ما يقرب من 100 ألف مقال في شتي مجالات الحياة، والفيديو لا يتعدى الـ 10 دقائق، يعني ممكن سماعه وانت تقف في انتظار شارة المرور، الموقع متوفر ب 60 لغة منها العربية: https://m.wikihow.com/Main-Page

 

5- موقع العلوم الحقيقية:

ينشر احدث ما وصل اليه العلم من أبحاث واكتشافات ومقالات مترجمة، بالاضافة لمقالات في أغلب مجالات الحياة (طب - رياضيات - اقتصاد – علم نفس...الخ http://real-sciences.com/ http://www.syr-res.com/

 

الطبيعة هي مكتبة ملهمة للمخترعين

اخيرا لمن يبحثون عن التميز، فان الطبيعة تعتبر مكتبة كبيرة الهمت العديد من المخترعين. هذا ما حدث بالفعل بالنسبة للعديد من الاختراعات المذهلة التي نستخدمها في حياتنا اليومية المبنية على ابداعات توصل اليها بنو البشر من خلال مشاهدة الظواهر الطبيعية التي تحيط بنا. تجدون على الرابط التالي الاكتشافات المستوحاة من الطبيعة. https://asknature.org

 

 

الطلاءات الحيوية المضادة للحشف البحري*: هي طلاءات خاصة تمنع تراكم الكائنات البحرية على السطح. وقد تم استلهام هذه الطلاءات الحيوية من سطح جلد سمك القرش، الذي يتكون من لوحات متداخلة (كالاسنان) متناهية الصغر (نانو) تمنع بشكل فعال تراكم الكائنات البحرية الدقيقة على سطح أسماك القرش حتى عندما تتحرك بسرعة بطيئة، كما انها توفر انسيابية عالية جدا وتوفر الطاقة. وهذه الخاصية التي تتمتع بها اسماك القرش تتفوق على الدهانات التي تم تطويرها لحماية الغواصات النووية اثناء الحرب الباردة، حتى أن شركات صناعة الطائرات مثل الايرباص استلهمت هذه الخاصية لطلاء طائراتها الحديثة (مثل طراز ايرباص 380 و350).

* الحشف البحري (الكائنات الدقيقة والنباتات والحيوانات والطحالب البحرية)

 

شاشات شركة سامسونغ عالية الدقة:

قامت شركة سامسونع بتصنيع اول شاشة رقمية مرنة. في اطار جهودها لتطوير الشاشات الرقمية عالية الجودة، قامت شركة سامسونغ بدراسة الحبار البحري لهاواي (hawaiian bobtail squid) والذي يتمتع بمرونة عالية وتنوع الوانه ودرجة وضوح متناهية في الدقة كما أنه يقوم بتنظيف جلده بشكل مستمر ويعمل على معالجة الجروح التي قد يتعرض لها بشكل كامل بحيث لا تترك اثرا على سطحه، واخيرا فانه يقوم بتغيير نسيج سطحه بحيث يمكن استشعاره باللمس، وهو ما يعني امكانية عمل شاشات لفاقدي البصر.

 

تصميم مواد مقاومة للصدمات مستوحاة من الروبيان ذو المطرقة (جمبري الطاووس، مانتيس) (Mantis Shrimp)

يعد الروبيان ذو المطرقة (جمبري المانتيس) الذي يعيش في المحيطين الهادىء والهندي صاحب اسرع ضربة على سطح الارض، وهو من أكثر كائنات الكرة الأرضية دقة في الرؤية، وذلك لقدرته على رؤية الحزم الضوئية حتى تلك شديدة التعقيد. يتراوح طول هذا الكائن البحري من حوالي 20 سم الى حوالي 30 سم.

تتحرك قبضة الروبيان بسرعة رصاصة من عيار 22 ملم ويمكن أن تصل إلى الفريسة في غضون 1 من 3000 جزء من الثانية، وتبلغ قوة الضربة 1500 نيوتن. ولو أن هذه السرعة استخدمت من قبل الذراع البشرية فستكون كافية لإرسال كرة البيسبول في مدار حول الارض. وتتسبب السرعة الفائقة للضربة في غليان الماء حول قبضة الروبيان وتخلق موجة يمكن أن تقتل الفريسة عن بعد.

بامكان قبضة الروبيان هذه توجيه ضربات لفريسته الاف المرات دون أن تنكسر، وتعادل قوة الضربة 1000 مرة وزنه، ومن هنا يتوجب وضع هذا الحيوان البحري في حوض خاص لان بامكانه كسر زجاج الحوض بفعل قوته الهائلة (للمزيد).

لقد الهمت ذراع الروبيان التي تشبه المطرقة فريق من الباحثين بكلية برونز للهندسة في رفيرسايد في كاليفورنيا لتصميم مواد مركبة مقاومة للصدمات وصلبة اكثر من المواد المستخدمة في صناعة الطائرات.

في الرابط التالي اليكم فلم قصير حول هذه المعجزة البحرية (للمشاهدة)، كما يظهر تسجيل اخر الاثر الذي تحدثه ضرباته على احدى القواقع، حيث يمكن مشاهدة فقاعات تتصاعد على اثر الضربة ناتجة عن تسخين الماء المحيط بالقوقعة (للمشاهدة).

 

Middle East Business Magazine

 

Education is not a mere concept it is considered a life journey that is worthy for all of us, of our time and trust. It is not deniable that education is facing challenges and demands structural reforms.

By Soukaina Rachidi

According to the World Bank, the youth unemployment rate in the MENA region in 2014 was 29.7%, one of the highest in the world. While the political unrest in the region has played a significant role in aggravating this problem, Bayt.com’s 2015 Fresh Graduates in the MENA Survey tells another story. Just over three-fifths of the survey’s respondents claimed “to have considered the availability of jobs in their field before deciding their major.” Furthermore, 76% of MENA graduates claimed that it was difficult to find their first job, because employers frequently wanted candidates with previous work experience. Unfortunately, these attitudes have created two paradoxical problems for young Arabs: unemployment and underemployment. However, this is not the case in Switzerland, where the youth unemployment rate is below 3%.  

This low rate has been attributed to the country’s dual vocational education and training (VET) system, where 16-19 year old students spend two days a week learning in a VET school and three days a week learning practical skills in a host company. Switzerland’s VET system is arguably one of Europe’s strongest, as it is the first choice of 70% of Swiss youth, who are looking to pursue upper-secondary education. This system prepares high achieving youth for white and blue collar jobs in a wide array of fields. Yet another advantage of Swiss apprenticeships is that students are paid. A student can receive the equivalent of $600-$700 to start off with and slowly work their way $1,100- $1,200 by their third year. Once they’ve graduate, VET students in the commercial sector can earn about $50,000 a year, and if they pursue further education, up to $100,000 a year according to the Swiss Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology (OPET).

Despite Switzerland’s comparatively low number of graduates to the Arab, it has a strong economy with a GDP of roughly $80,000 per capita, the fourth highest in the world. Moreover, according to INSEAD’s 2014 Global Innovation Index “Switzerland ranks number one, and has in addition a highly competitive export economy that sends 80 percent of what it produces abroad.” So, what is it that makes Switzerland’s VET model so successful and how can the Arab world use it as a case study to eliminate the $40-$50 billion annual loss caused by high unemployment and unproductivity?

  • Labor Market Needs are Clearly Identified

To ensure that VET students are prepared for the workforce, Swiss trade organizations thoroughly explore what skills are in demand in the labor market, so apprentices can receive the right training. After identifying what skills are required, The State Secretariat of Education, Research and OPET work closely together with industry associations to devise the curricula for the 200+ occupations that students can do apprenticeships in. During the VET program, students are guaranteed to acquire the various technical, methodological and social skills needed to excel in their chosen occupation.

  • Swiss Youth Receive Counselling

Each Swiss state, also known as a canton, has a network of community-based career centers that support grade students, as they decide whether they want to pursue academic or vocational training at the upper-secondary level. Even though these centers exist outside of the educational system, they regularly engage with schools and provide private consultations for interested students and families. These career centers also offer students a range of services including help writing resumes and developing portfolios to organizing short pre-apprenticeships to explore prospective apprenticeship cites. While students are expected to write their own application letters, their career counselors support them until they find an apprenticeship that meets their needs.

  • Private Sector is Highly Invested and Engaged

In 2012, around 58,000 Swiss companies provided VET programs to roughly 80,000 young apprentices in commercial, retail, healthcare, technology, and other fields. According to Franziska Schwarz, Vice Director of OPET, “businesses regard [the] training of young people as their social responsibility” and a long-term investment. Consequently, they don’t receive, or even expect, any government subsidies for taking on apprentices. In fact, companies participating in three-year VET programs collectively invest around $5.4 billion to cover apprentices’ salaries, training materials and instructors. However, in return, not only do these companies receive a considerable net-profit, they also get a highly-skilled and experienced workforce.

While several Arab countries already have vocational programs in place, none of them are as successful as the Swiss VET system. Unfortunately, many regional programs are ineffective, because there is poor communication between employers and educational institutions, there is no integrated national system for occupational standards, labor market data is outdated or unreliable and there is a lack of career counseling services for young Arabs. However, these gaps also offer a unique opportunity for those looking to invest in vocational education and training, private universities, and work-readiness programs to improve the competitiveness of the future workforce in the Arab region

Par: Alexia Michiels*

Les salariés sont plus motivés qu’ils ne l’étaient il y a 4 ans mais le prix à payer est élevé, d’après une nouvelle étude du Resilience Institute. Le temps est venu pour les dirigeants de créer un environnement de travail qui favorise la performance tout en stimulant le bonheur et le bien-être des collaborateurs.

L’étude réalisée entre 2011 et 2014 sur plus de 13 000 salariés de 250 entreprises en Europe, Australie et Asie mesure les facteurs liés à la résilience. Le Resilience Institute définit les personnes résilientes comme faisant preuve de

  • Rebond - ténacité et capacité de rebond face à l’adversité
  • Courage - enthousiasme face aux changements et défis
  • Créativité - développement des talents et des opportunités
  • Connexion - humilité, respect et bienveillance vis à vis des autres et de la nature

Entre 2011 et 2014, le nombre de personnes qui trouvent leur job “extrêmement motivant” a augmenté. Bien que cela soit une excellente nouvelle pour les employeurs, les DRH et les organisations en général, les employés sont aussi dans le même temps moins résilients...

Les données recueillies ces 4 dernières années indiquent une tendance négative des facteurs de résilience relatifs au bien-être tant mental que physique. 


En général, les collaborateurs se sentent moins alignés avec leurs valeurs personnelles, ils se sentent submergés par un sentiment de confusion. La qualité de leur sommeil et de leur nutrition en est négativement affectée. Ces données nous montrent aussi que les collaborateurs s’inquiètent davantage à propos du futur.

Quand les collaborateurs sont très motivés et engagés dans leur activité professionnelle, ils peuvent se faire prendre au piège de cycles de travail ininterrompus. Nous savons que cela réduit la productivité et mine la résilience individuelle.

L’étude du Resilience Institute montre aussi que les risques de burnout sont corrélés à de bas niveaux de résilience. Le burnout a un impact négatif très important sur les résultats d’une organisation en augmentant l’absentéisme et en diminuant la productivité, et a un coût humain très lourd pour la société. D’après l’enquête de l’Institut Think pour Great Place to Work (www.greatplacetowork.fr), près d’une personne sur cinq risque de souffrir de dépression ; les organisations qui cherchent à développer la productivité et la motivation de leurs collaborateurs auraient tout intérêt à se donner les moyens de développer leur résilience.

L’étude montre qu’en ce qui concerne la résilience, mental et physique vont de pair. Prendre soin de son mental et de sa condition physique (attention, concentration, exercice, nutrition, sommeil) est ce qui a le plus d’impact sur les niveaux individuels de résilience.

Les organisations doivent donc contre balancer la pression à la performance par un investissement dans les compétences de résilience de leurs équipes.

Pour l’individu et l’organisation, l’intégration d’approches visant à mieux gérer l’énergie physique, mentale et émotionnelle est la meilleure garantie de faire face aux défis du monde actuel dans un contexte de performance durable.

L’analyse des données confirme que les programmes d’accompagnement proposés par le Resilience Institute portent leurs fruits. Une évolution très significative de la vitalité physique et du niveau de concentration des salariés se vérifie à la lecture des post-diagnostics de résilience effectués 3 à 6 mois après la phase ateliers. D’une manière générale, les programmes renforcent l’engagement sans mettre en péril l’équilibre des salariés.

Pour plus d’infos, contactez Alexia Michiels : This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

www.resiliencei.com

*Alexia Michiels: D’origine belge et basée à Lausanne, Alexia est co-fondatrice du Resilience Institute Europe. Elle accompagne les leaders et leurs équipes afin de créer une culture résiliente au sein de leur organisation, favorisant à la fois l’épanouissement personnel et la performance. Passionnée par l’approche intégrale et pratique du Resilience Institute, Alexia est une consultante dynamique, mariée et maman de 4 enfants.

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