Durant la dernière décennie, la région MENA a fait l’expérience d’une croissance économique et démographique considérable, qui devrait continuer dans le futur. La demande d’énergie dans ces diverses régions (composée d'importateurs et d’exportateurs d’énergie) se développe entre 3% et 8% par an. En réalité, la demande d’énergie s’élève si rapidement dans le monde Arabe que même les pays qui ont traditionnellement exporté de l'énergie dans le passé sont confrontés à la perspective de devenir eux-mêmes des importateurs d’énergie. La courbe suivante montre la demande croissante d’électricité dans la région Arabe à travers le temps, plus précisément au sein du Conseil de Coopération du Golfe.
Over the past decade, the MENA region has experienced considerable economic and population growth, which is only expected to continue in the future. The demand for power in this diverse region (comprised of energy importers and exporters) is expanding between 3% and 8% annually. In fact, the demand for energy is rising so rapidly in the Arab world that even countries which have traditionally exported energy in the past are facing the prospect of becoming energy importers themselves. The following figure shows the increasing demand for electricity overtime in the Arab region, especially in the Gulf Cooperation Council.
اقتصاد المعرفة في العالم العربي والتجارة الإلكترونية: هل نحن في صدد التحول من اقتصاد "تناظري" الى الاقتصاد الرقمي؟27 Nov 2016
ايمن ابو الخير
هل نحن في مرحلة اجتياز الاقتصادي المهيمن القائم على أساس المصانع الكبيرة والشركات متعددة الجنسيات إلى عالم يقوم على حرية الاختيار، الذي سيتمكن فيه الكيانات الصغيرة من المنافسة مع الشركات الكبيرة،وبالتالي ستساهم في تشكيل اقتصاد المستقبل؟ هل نحن فعلا بصدد عبور الاقتصاد "التناظري" الحقيقي الى الاقتصاد الافتراضي، ام ان الانتقال سيكون من الاقتصاد الافتراضي الى الاقتصاد الحقيقي؟
By Ayman Abualkhair
Are we in a stage of passing the dominant economic age, based on large factories and multinational companies, to a world predicated on freedom of choice, in which small entities would have the potential to compete with large companies, and hence shape the future economy? Are we crossing the age of a real economy to a virtual one, or is it moreover transitioning from a virtual economy to a real economy?
Economy of Sudan
Despite being the 17th fastest growing economy in the world with new economic policies and infrastructure investments, and the Sudan’s economy is relatively diversified and open, it has developed since 1999 a marked dependency on the oil sector that has substantially increased its vulnerability to external and fiscal shocks. The oil sector‘s contribution to GDP has been modest, hovering around 15 percent. However, it provided sizeable budget revenues and contributed a major share of the country’s foreign exchange receipts. The economic and financial losses related to South Sudan’s secession are substantial and have affected all the sectors of the economy.
The loss of output is concentrated in the oil sector and estimated at 75 percent, compared with 5–10 percent in the rest of the economy. Prior to the country's breakup, Sudan oil production was close to 500,000 barrels per day. In terms of value-added, the overall loss is about SDG 50 billion (about 26 percent of 2012 GDP), of which about 19 percent of GDP in the oil sector.
The revenue loss for the government is estimated at SDG 12 billion (about 6 percent of GDP), corresponding to the foregone oil revenues net of the transfers to South Sudan and the savings on wages of South Sudanese civil servants.
On the external sector side, the main impact is related to the loss of oil exports estimated at about US$6.6 billion (12.9 percent of GDP) in 2012.
Sudan has opened the country's first gold refinery, which officials say is one of Africa's largest plants. Analysts say it is part of a strategy by the government to deal with the loss of oil revenue following the session of South Sudan in 2011.
Faced with the loss of most oil reserves to South Sudan when it seceded in 2011, Sudan is trying to boost exports of gold and farming exports such as cotton, cash crops or gum Arabic from its vast farmlands.
The loss of oil revenues, which used to be the main source for state revenues and dollars needed to pay for food imports, has thrown the economy into turmoil. The Sudanese pounds has more than halved in value since the secession.
After a year of uncertainty, the authorities approved in late June 2012 a comprehensive reform program to address the deterioration of the country’s economic and financial situation. The program-which builds on the authorities’ Three-Year Emergency Program - includes an exchange rate devaluation of about 66 percent, an increase in key taxes, a sharp reduction in fuel subsidies, cuts in non-priority spending, and a strengthening of the social safety nets.Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including: petroleum, natural gas, gold, silver, chromite, asbestos, manganese, gypsum, mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium, copper, kaolin, cobalt, granite, nickel, tin, aluminum.
Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the workforce and contributing 39% of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought.
Area: 1,861,484 (2,505,813 sq km was the area of Sudan before the independence of the Republic of South Sudan with an area of 619,745 km2, 25% of the total area of the former Sudan).
Visas are required by visitors except those in transit and Egyptian and Tanzanian residents. Travellers are required to register with police headquarters within three days of arrival in the country.
Independence Day of Sudan, 1 January